Definition of Generative Breeding and Examples in Plants
Generative is – Every living thing must reproduce in order to continue its lineage. Breeding or reproduction means the creation of new living things of the same kind. Living things reproduce to produce offspring, which prevents their kind and species from becoming extinct for their offspring. Creatures that can reproduce are creatures that are already adults.
Not only humans and animals, but plants also reproduce. They also have the same goal, namely the multiplication of the plant species itself, the process of reproduction or the creation of new individuals in plants to maintain the continuity of the species’ offspring. The process of reproduction can be done sexually (generative)
Sexual reproduction produces new offspring by fusion of gametes from parents. The offspring that are born have different genetic characteristics from their parents.
With the method of sexual (generative) development for plants, on this occasion Gramedia will discuss plant reproduction. To find out more about how generative reproduction occurs in plants, let’s look at the following review!
Definition of Generative Breeding
Generative reproduction (generative reproduction) is the reproduction of plants by means of mating or fertilization. Process Both plants and animals can undergo this generative reproduction. Generative reproduction is characterized by fertilization.
Fertilization is a fusion process involving male and female gametes which eventually produces a zygote and forms a new organism. Fertilization in animals occurs through the fusion of egg cells and sperm cells while fertilization in plants is the process of fusion of pollen and pistils. Examples of generative modes of reproduction in plants are conjugation, isogamy, anisogamy, and pollination.
Plants can be pollinated by insects. The types of offspring obtained from sexual reproduction can vary and can also be a combination of two parents. Generative reproduction can only occur in advanced living things, ie. living things that have different reproductive organs to determine which is male and which is female.
There are also organisms that have two sex organs in one body so they can mate on their own. Animals with 2 sex organs are called hermaphrodites.
Plant Generative Propagation Tool
The generative reproductive organs in angiosperms are flowers. Flowers produce gametes which are necessary for sexual reproduction.
A. Interest Section
1. Flower Jewelry
Flower jewelry is the part of the flower that forms on the leaves. Floral jewelery usually includes the petals and the corolla. The petals are on the outer whorl, usually green. When the flower is still a bud, the petals serve as a flower shield. Some flower jewelry consists of separate parts in the form of loose threads, some are tied at the base or all of them.
2. Flower Genitals (Reproductive Organs)
The reproductive part of a flower consists of the male reproductive organ, the stamens, and the female reproductive organ, the pistil. The stamens are usually on the outer ring of the pistil.
The stamens consist of anthers and a stalk. Pollen formation occurs in the anthers. Some types of flowers have stamens of different lengths, for example turi, beans and peanuts have ten stamens which are divided into two tukal (traps).
One stamen is separate and the other nine are combined. In a hibiscus flower, all the stamens are joined into a tube that surrounds the pistil. The part of the anther that is not glued together is very short and sits on top and supports the anther.
The pistil is usually in the center of the flower and is surrounded by many stamens. The pistil parts are the stigma, the stigma, and the ovary. The ovary contains one or more seeds. Inside the egg is a pouch filled with several cells. One of the bladders is the egg whose nucleus is fertilized by the sperm nucleus. After fertilization, the ovary wall becomes a fruit and the egg develops into a seed.
B. Variations of Kinds of Flowers
Flowers can be grouped based on the completeness of the flower parts and the completeness of the flower reproductive organs.
1. Based on Completeness of the Interest Section
Based on the perfection of the flower parts, flower ornaments and genitals, flowers are divided into perfect flowers and imperfect flowers.
1. Complete Flowers
A flower is said to be a complete flower if it has petals, corolla, stamens and pistils. Examples are hibiscus, tobacco, rose, jasmine and eggplant. A perfect flower must have two types of sex organs because it is called a double flower (hermatrophy). However, double or fully androgynous buds are not necessarily perfect buds.
2. Incomplete Flowers
A flower is said to be an incomplete flower if one or more parts of the flower, and the ornaments and reproductive organs of the flower are missing. Imperfect flowers are divided into two groups.
- Flower jewelry is incomplete, because it does not have a crown or petals. Flowers that do not have floral ornaments are called naked flowers.
- Incomplete genitalia. If a flower has only one reproductive organ, it is called a unisexual flower, consisting of cucumber flowers and salak flowers. If a flower has no sex organs, it is called a sterile flower (flowers without sex), for example, a ribbon flower on a sunflower.
2. Based on Completeness of Genitals
Measured from the completeness of the reproductive organs, flowers are divided into perfect flowers and imperfect flowers.
A flower is said to be a perfect flower if it has two types of reproductive organs, namely stamens and pistils. Flower jewelry in the form of flower petals and crowns does not always have to be made from perfect flowers.
Flowers are not perfect
A flower is said to be an incomplete flower if it only has one type of reproductive organ, stamens or pistils. When a plant has both male and female flowers, it is said to be monoecious. If the male and female flowers are on different individual plants, we are talking about a dioecious plant.
Fertilization is the union of the sperm and egg cells. These events take place in the body’s bladder inside the egg. Fertilization is a complex process, which is as follows. Pollen in closed seed plants attached to the stigma grows into a pollen tube (pollen tube ).
Pollen vessels grow on the stalk of the stigma and form a tube leading to the ovary, which contains the ovules. Inside the pollen vessels there are two reproductive nuclei and a vegetative nucleus that arises from the division of the pollen nucleus. The two reproductive nuclei are called the first sperm nucleus and the second sperm nucleus. The first and second sperm nuclei move towards the egg.
The nucleus of the ovum and the secondary nucleus (polar nucleus) are located inside the vesicle. The sperm nucleus first enters through the micropium (hole in the egg) to the nucleus.
The first sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus we speak of the first fertilization. The result of the first fusion of the sperm nucleus and the egg cell is the zygote. The zygote grows into an institution or embryo or a new plant candidate.
The second sperm nucleus penetrates further and then fuses with the secondary nucleus. This is called second fertilization. The result of the fusion of the second seed nucleus with the secondary organ nucleus (endosperm). The endosperm is a food storage site for new plants. In the case of closed seed plants, fertilization occurs twice, therefore we are talking about double fertilization.
When the ovary has a lot of seeds, a lot of pollen is also needed. Otherwise, the egg will not become a seed. After fertilization, the ovary wall grows into the fruit. Inside the fruit there are usually seeds, such as mango, rambutan, and guava. The seeds are wrapped in pulp. With cashews, the stem of the fruit swells
or the pseudo fruit of cashews. The fruit itself is made from fruit skin, seed pods and cashew nuts.
Examples of Generative Breeding Ways
There are several things that can help in the process of pollination in plants that reproduce sexually. Not only thanks to the help of animals, because plants also need the help of wind, water and humans for pollination.
1. Anemogamous Plant Breeding (Aided by Wind)
Corn is one of the plants that is not attacked by butterflies, but corn can still produce fruit.
Wind helps pollinate corn plants. The wind that moves the stalks of the corn plants causes the stamens to fall to the pistils, allowing the process of pollination to occur in the corn plants.
Plants that reproduce in this way tend to have the general characteristics of living in areas with little water, with dry or pale pollen, and with small petals. Besides corn, grass is also a plant that increases anemogamy.
2. Zoidiogamous Plant Breeding (Assisted by Animals)
As previously mentioned, butterflies are animals that help pollinate plants. Besides butterflies, bees and birds there are other animals that pollinate plants.
This pollination process is called zoidiogamy, in which animals help pollinate. Plants produce nectar to attract insects or other animals so that the pollination process occurs.
Some plants not only attract animals with their nectar, but also animals with their scent. An example is the Rafflesia Arnoldi flower which emits an unpleasant odor. The smell attracts flies, so the flies land on the Rafflesia Arnoldi flower.
3. Hydrogamy Plant Propagation (Water Assisted)
Algae or algae are plants that live in water. These plants act as producers in aquatic ecosystems. Pollination of algae is aided by water, which occurs when all parts of the algae are covered in water. The stamens are washed away by the water and attach to the pistil. In addition to algae, hydras can also reproduce in this way.
4. Anthropogamous Plant Breeding (Assisted by Humans)
People can also help with plant breeding, both consciously and unconsciously. For example, when we walk among the corn plants, our body parts bump into some of these plants without us realizing it. The corn stalks sway and accidentally release pollen, then the pollen sticks to the pistils of other corn plants and causes reproduction.
Characteristics of plants that reproduce generatively
At first glance, generative plants have a slightly different form from vegetative plants. This difference can be seen with the naked eye, you know, Grameds . Well, here are the characteristics of plants that reproduce generatively, namely:
- The trunk is small.
- The leaves are small and light green.
- The leaf shape is open and flat.
- The fruit is large and a lot.
- It should also be noted that plants that reproduce generatively are often found in seed plants.
Generative plants usually have small leaves, so most of the sugar produced is used to grow fruit. The sugar produced by photosynthesis is a food source for these plants. During this time, the oxygen produced by photosynthesis is released into the air through the stomata located under the leaves.
Types and Examples of Generatively Reproducing Plants
Generative plant reproduction is divided into two types, namely: natural reproduction and artificial reproduction. Natural generative occurs with the help of nature, for example wind and animals. Here, people have no stake. Most seed plants pollinate naturally. This is the process of several plant species that reproduce generatively.
Rice can be pollinated with the help of wind (anemogamy). This plant produces seeds in the form of fine powder which are easily carried by the wind and provide a means of reproduction for rice. With the help of the wind, the seeds land and are pollinated by beating the anthers and stigmas.
Like rice, corn is pollinated by the wind. This occurs when the stamens are carried by the wind and reach the stigma of another corn.
3. Guava Seeds
In principle, guava plants can reproduce both vegetatively and reproductively. Guava is propagated by planting directly with the seeds. This shows that guava is a plant that is propagated artificially (thanks to human assistance).
This plant also has something in common with the Water Guava, and can be propagated by planting it with seeds.
The coffee tree also reproduces with the help of humans. This is done by sowing coffee seeds.
Peanuts are usually grown from seed. These beans grow in the ground.
Avocados also reproduce by planting seeds.
Salak can be propagated vegetatively and generatively. Like the previous plants, salak reproduces by sowing seeds.
Reproductive growth of tomatoes begins with a seedling.
10. Long Beans
Long beans produce complete flowers because they consist of stems, petals, corolla, stamens and pistils. This is how the propagation of long beans with the help of insects. This is done with the help of insects that happen to carry the stamens and transfer them to other similar plants.
The Process of Pollination, Generative Breeding
Generative reproduction must begin with pollination. Pollination is the process by which pollen grains fall or stick to the stigma of a plant. If the process is successful, it produces pollen. Usually occurs in seed plants. Then the pollen enters the egg. Fertilization occurs inside the egg. Fertilization is the fusion of a male cell or pollen with a female cell or stigma. When the pollination process is complete, it produces fruit.
In addition, there are several possibilities in the pollination process. So you can pollinate the generative propagation of plants.
This self-pollination only occurs when the pollen and stigma are on the same plant or flower.
Neighbor pollination is pollination that occurs when the pollen grains and anthers come from the same tree. Pollen flies to the stigma of another flower.
Cross pollination is pollination that occurs when pollen grains and anthers come from other flowers and plants. But the tree or trees are always the same. With this pollination, traits that are stronger than before can be produced.
The last type of pollination is cross-pollination or hybridization, meaning that pollination occurs when pollen and anthers come from other flowers or from other plants with different plant species.
Grameds , this is an article about the meaning and examples of generative plant reproduction. With this article, it is hoped that you will be able to find out about generative reproduction.
If you want to learn more about plants, you can buy books available at Gramedia. Gramedia as #FriendsWithoutLimits has provided a variety of quality books that you can have. Come on Grameds, buy the book now!
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